Displacement tracking mechanisms
Data on displacement helps to identify locations, demographics, resources, and needs of the populations affected by crises, including migrants, which in turn can guide the provision of assistance and coordination among stakeholders. Displacement tracking, depending on the needs and context, can be comprised of one or more data gathering methods, including:
- Site assessments to understand the profile of the population, their location, and access to services;
- Movement monitoring to understand patterns and trends;
- Registration to gain a detailed understanding of the population;
- Surveys to gather more qualitative data on a population. Information that can be produced through displacement tracking mechanisms include:
- Aggregated raw data, available to all stakeholders that can be used for further analysis;
- Regularly updated site profiles to give a quick snapshot of a particular location where migrants are concentrated;
- Statistical reports, such as dashboards, produced frequently to cope with fast-changing figures to give close to real-time information as well as an overview of trends and patterns on a shorter timescale (days, hours);
- Thematic maps to illustrate information geographically;
- Reports to analyze the collected data and present a comprehensive picture;
- Web-portals to serve as central repositories for all stakeholders to access reports and documentation produced through tracking mechanisms.
Assessment of migrants’ needs
Individual migrants may have particular needs that should be identified and addressed. Profiles of migrant populations, including information on age, gender, disabilities, and other characteristics, may have been created pre-crisis and can be used to understand migrants’ specific needs and to adjust emergency responses accordingly. If not created pre-crisis, stakeholders could undertake minimal, ad hoc community profiling to assess particular needs, community demographics, migrants’ location (including those in detention or working or living in isolated places), religious or cultural profiles, and whether needs are being met.
Tailoring assistance delivery to migrants’ needs
Measures to ensure that assistance provided is tailored to migrants’ particular needs include:
- Assistance to migrants in a manner that is culturally and religiously appropriate and sensitive to and addresses the needs of migrants with disabilities, older migrants, migrant children, including separated or unaccompanied children, and migrants of all sexual orientations and gender identities;
- Measures to deliver targeted interventions to address different needs and specific vulnerabilities of migrant women, men, boys, and girls;
- Gender- and age-sensitive procedures in reception places, shelters, camps, and centers for migrants, or gender- or age-specific centers and services;
- Measures that take account of needs stemming from work in isolated conditions, lack of social networks, language or communication barriers, and lack of documentation.
Monitoring migrants’ access to humanitarian assistance
Integrating migrants into mechanisms and activities on monitoring non-discriminatory access to humanitarian assistance can help to assess and address obstacles migrants may face in receiving relief. Feedback and complaint mechanisms can also provide opportunities for migrants to inform stakeholders about barriers to access.
Dedicated outreach to migrant communities
Applying a variety of approaches can increase the availability of assistance and facilitate outreach to the most vulnerable migrant groups. Specific approaches may be needed to ensure that migrants who may not self-identify or who find shelter on their own are also provided with protection, such as door-to-door visits in localities hosting migrant communities, employer housing sites, or visits to detention centers.
Mobile response teams to reach and provide assistance to affected migrants
When a crisis occurs, migrants’ needs can be overlooked in the midst of large-scale displacement and widespread humanitarian assistance needs. The deployment of ad hoc mobile response teams can fill potential gaps. These teams can also access isolated locations where migrants are concentrated. Stakeholders can deploy mobile rapid response teams independently or in coordination with each other. These teams should comprise experienced and appropriately skilled personnel who are trained in, and aware of, migrants’ particular needs and vulnerabilities. They can provide a wide range of services to migrants, including:
- Issuing passports or travel documents, or otherwise registering migrants or their needs;
- Supporting local authorities and international organizations with migrants’ needs assessments and overall coordination;
- Distributing emergency supplies and offering medical assistance;
- Reaching out to isolated migrants.
Migrant support centers in host States
Migrants may not be able to access relief directed at the citizens of the host State. In addition to acting as a venue for communicating information, migrant support centers can provide:
- Access to phones and the internet;
- Counseling services in multiple languages;
- Evacuation information and referrals to pertinent authorities, other actors, and services;
- Non-monetary assistance, including blankets, food, water, and health care;
- Monetary assistance;
- Screening and referral of cases in need of special protection, such as victims of violence or trafficking.
Family tracing and reunification services
During crises migrant family members can become separated, leaving individuals, especially children, more vulnerable to violence, abuse, exploitation, and trafficking. Services to facilitate family tracing and reunification include:
- Deployment of specialized teams to provide expertise on assisting unaccompanied or separated children, manage the tracing process, and handle cases in need of special protection;
- Training for State and border authorities on how to conduct tracing, how to assist unaccompanied or separated children, and facilitate family reunification;
- Hotline and call centers to collect information and inform family members or refer them to the appropriate sources of information;
- Online tracing services (e.g., websites and mobile applications), including lists of names, information on hospital patients, persons sought, and relevant contacts. Interested migrants should be able to access these lists directly on a webpage or publish their own data and queries;
- Online registries to enable the public to report information relating to children who have been separated from their parents or families in order to assist law enforcement and consular officials as well as child protection actors with location and reunification; ■ Identification of remains of missing migrants and establishing databases of missing migrants.
Assistance to unaccompanied or separated children
Targeted assistance to unaccompanied or separated children can include:
- Creating child- friendly spaces in reception places, shelters, camps, and centers for migrants to accommodate the psychosocial, health, and other needs of children;
- Providing access to basic services, such as health, education, food, psychosocial support, housing, education, and recreational activities;
- Setting up family tracing and reunification mechanisms;
- Identifying victims of trafficking and referring them to appropriate assistance services;
- Establishing referral mechanisms to other stakeholders;
- Preventing recruitment into armed groups through education and training to build resilience.