Type of practice: Assistance programs
Name of Stakeholder: International Labour Organization (ILO)
Type of Stakeholder Implementing the Practice: International Organizations
Type of crisis: Conflict, Natural Disaster
Crisis phase: Post-Crisis Action
Through the development of a Tripartite Framework for the support and protection of Ethiopian and Somali women migrant domestic workers to the GCC States, Lebanon and Sudan, the International Labour Organization (ILO) started working on re-integrating Ethiopian returnees from Saudi Arabia into the labour market, while preparing awareness raising programmes to avoid stigma and discrimination for these returnees. This project specifically supports the re-integration of 1,000 women returnees from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Women returnees from Saudi Arabia come mainly from very poor households and often vulnerable situations. Many have returned with children, many have no families to turn to, and some face psychosocial difficulties. An integrated plan of activities which includes business and entrepreneurship training, capacity building, mentorship and coaching helps the returnees get back on their feet, provide for themselves and their families, and become part of a productive segment of society.
- Support migrants’ recovery
GUIDELINE 14: Address migrants’ immediate needs and support migrants to rebuild lives
The dislocation and disruption created by conflicts or natural disasters can have significant and severe consequences for the socio-economic wellbeing of migrants and their families. Migrant workers often support themselves and their immediate and extended families, whether they are with them in the host State or in States of origin. Conflicts and natural disasters can stem the flow of income to migrants and curtail remittances to their families. Technical facilities to remit money can be disrupted. Currency devaluations and changes in exchange rates can affect migrants’ savings and assets. Education opportunities for student migrants can be indefinitely suspended. Xenophobia and discrimination against migrants may increase. Post-crisis conditions in host States and States of transit may allow trafficking of persons and other exploitative arrangements to thrive.
Migrants and their families who return to States of origin after prolonged stays in a host State can experience difficulty finding employment and housing and reintegrating. Reintegration may be especially difficult for victims of trafficking, individuals who experienced sexual and gender-based violence in the host State, children born to migrants in host States who have no experience of the culture in the parents’ State of origin, and migrants who have been abroad for extended periods of time. Possible interventions include cash assistance to address immediate needs, psychosocial counseling, health care, physical rehabilitation, family tracing services, assistance to recover outstanding wages, assets and property, compensation to address losses, and much more. Efforts to restore income for those migrants who return to their States of origin may include certification and recognition of skills, education, and training acquired abroad. Many migrants may seek opportunities to acquire new skills upon return. For various reasons, including to revive their incomes, others may seek opportunities to remigrate back to host States once the crisis has subsided or migrate to other countries.
Migrants who remain in their host States can also experience difficulty resuming their previous lives. They will require many of the same support services as migrants who return to their States of origin, such as cash assistance, health care, psychosocial and other counseling, family tracing, compensation, assistance to recover outstanding wages, assets, and property, and efforts to restore income, employment, and education opportunities. Like citizens, migrants’ post-crisis needs should be factored into host State recovery plans and programs at the national and local levels. States may decide to review immigration and visa rules to provide latitude for migrants who wish to remain in the host State to do so legally. Efforts that leverage the solidarity of migrants who remain in host States towards their host communities and societies could counteract xenophobic and discriminatory attitudes.
Access to remedies to recover lost property and assets, outstanding wages, pensions, and other benefits. Engagement of migrants in host-State reconstruction efforts. Flexible immigration procedures to enable migrants to retain regular immigration status. Registration, assessment, and recognition of returned migrants’ needs and skills. Immediate reintegration support, including cash and medical assistance. Income and employment regeneration assistance, including assistance with remigration. Certification mechanisms for skills, education, and training acquired abroad.